Advanced Warning: Extreme Tides and a Changing Coastline

Richard Neale, Coastal Engagement Project Manager for Wales, reflects on the effects of the winter storms along the Welsh coastline

Last summer, I received an email from our coastal and marine advisor entitled “Extreme Tides in 2014 – advanced warning”.  Astronomical predictions by the National Oceanography Centre were suggesting tides of up to a metre above normal, and if low pressure ‘surge’ conditions coincide, then we were to expect even higher tides.

Church Rock white out in Pembrokeshire

Few of us thought at the time that the ‘croupier’ that governs the natural world’s machinations was to come up with a royal flush deal. One that delivered a succession of storms that changed the shape of our coastline, destroying homes, lives and livelihoods and prompting a debate that goes to the root of our relationship with the natural world.

This shouldn’t have come as surprise to those of us who have been managing coastline for the National Trust. Ten years ago we published the seminal report, Shifting Shores. This advocated moving from defence as the only response, to a range of solutions that include adaptation. Put simply, if we can work with rather than against the forces of nature we can avoid the agonising human and financial costs and gain a more natural, beautiful and wildlife-friendly coast to boot.

Testimony to our general adherence to this principle is that the National Trust in Wales came off quite lightly as far as structural damage is concerned.  Sure, we’ve had to cope with dozens of eroded paths, dislodged bridges and mountains of seaborne flotsam which has cost us tens of thousands of pounds and thousands of hours of staff and volunteer time. But these costs are nothing compared to the £11.4m that Natural Resources Wales estimated was the cost of storm damage to infrastructure along the entire Welsh coast. 

Rhossili coast damage-26

The most notable affects that we had to deal with included: the severed path to Rhossili beach, Gower; the loss of most of the car park at Abereiddi, Pembrokeshire, where erosion we’d predicted would take 5-15 years happened in just a couple of days; the near-breaching of the Cemlyn shingle ridge on Anglesey, with implications for the rare tern colony; and concerns for the medieval church and other properties at Llandanwg, Harlech.

PMYBC2012 06 Abereiddi 2014 02 10

Practical solutions to these and many other effects of the storms are now being worked on by my colleagues, armed with the adaptation principles championed in Shifting Shores. But a much greater challenge exists; the hard-wired belief that nature must be bent to our will at all costs.  The never-ending story of our coast – and the tale of a certain deluded Anglo-Scandinavian king – stands as a warning to us all in this respect.

Knightshayes’ trees battered by winter storms

Senior Ranger at Knightshayes in Devon, Raef Johnson, tells us how the storms have affected this country estate.

On my first day as senior Ranger at Knightshayes, I was met by a locked gate and a property closed sign. The day was Monday the 28th of October and marked the first of the storms that would batter our trees almost uninterrupted for the next four months.

Winter was characterised by constant monitoring of the Met office website, opening and re-opening of the property and taping off paths and dangerous trees. The buzz of chainsaws and chippers filled any respite from the winds, but with nearly fifty large to very large trees down, or worse hung up, the efforts of just two rangers could never keep abreast of the next wave of damage.


As I write this now in March, however, we have had more than a fortnight without any epic winds or downpours. The ground is drying up and the trees are remaining vertical, meaning once we have found funding for a timber trailer and grab we can start winching, cutting up and removing what must be nearly 500 tonnes of windblown timber.

My debut winter at Knightshayes was a real baptism of fire, but out of the flames, or more exactly the storms, has risen much opportunity. Branch wood is being logged to establish onsite firewood sales and other more valuable timber is being sold to local timber merchants and wood workers for milling. Other felled trees will remain to decay and provide deadwood habitats, while some of the most impressive trunks will be reborn as wood carvings and even natural play features for children.


And if that wasn’t enough good news, as well as being fully open now, I can sleep a lot easier in the knowledge that if the trees that are left stood up to this winter’s barrage, they can stand up to anything!



The Times They Are A-Changin’ for the coastline

This winter has seen some of the worst storms in living memory with many coastal places being pounded by the weather and fierce seas.  Nature writer and author of a book about the coast due out in spring 2015, Patrick Barkham, reflects on the changing British coastline.


It’s hard to describe that feeling when you go to a favourite beach and find it reshaped by the sea.

After the winter storms, I visited Wells-next-the-Sea and was completely disorientated by the virtual disappearance of the outermost dune. I’d played here as a boy and proposed marriage here too, and now it was gone.

It’s hard not to experience such change as loss. I wanted my old beach back.

Many of us will be going through similar experiences after the winter storms have changed our coastline, in some cases beyond recognition. To see the much-loved railway to Cornwall swinging like a rope bridge at Dawlish is a shock but it is a man-made structure. It is far more disturbing to find natural features we assume to be immortal, such as the rock arch at Porthcothan Bay, Cornwall, and the great stack on the south side of Portland, in Dorset, destroyed by the raging sea.

For the last year, I’ve been lucky enough to visit as much of the 742 miles of coastline protected by the National Trust as I can to research a book which will help celebrate the fiftieth birthday of the Trust’s brilliant Neptune Coastline Campaign next year. I may have to retrace my steps because so many of the special places I’ve seen have been transformed by the storms!

I arrived at Birling Gap by the Seven Sisters last summer as the finishing touches were being put on the Trust’s chic new cafe and education centre. This building has been cleverly designed to be gradually shifted away from the crumbling cliffs as they erode but the Trust is already having to remove its sun lounge and ice cream parlour after seven years of erosion in just two months.

Like access to Birling Gap beach, the main path to Rhossili, that great surf beach on the Gower, has been battered by the storms and fifty metres has washed away. When storms hit, in many places coast paths are the first to go, and for an organisation committed to public access like the Trust, this is a particular headache.

However, the changes storms bring have their upsides too – if we allow them to happen.

From what I’ve seen, the Trust’s approach to coastal management is to permit natural processes of erosion and accretion to occur where possible. So at Brownsea Island, for example, newly eroded material from crumbling cliffs is finding its way along the shore and building up on its beaches. Reuben Hawkwood, Head Ranger for the island, hopes that the south shore beaches will have more sand on them than they’ve had for some time.

Sand dunes and salt marshes are naturally constantly shifting environments and Sandscale Haws on the Cumbrian coast, for instance, has benefitted from storms creating new blowouts and bare patches which will suit rare pioneering plants and insects.

Wild things often cope better with wild weather than we do. Like everyone, I struggle with change but I think the aftermath of the storms of 2013/14 will encourage us to adapt, like nature does, rather than always seek to defy the sea. Our coastline wouldn’t be the same if it wasn’t always changing.

You can follow Patrick Barkham on twitter via @Patrick_Barkham.  Patrick’s new book on the National Trust’s Neptune Coastline Campaign will be out in spring 2015 and his latest book ‘Badgerlands’ is out in hardback now.

Cracks appear at Birling Gap

Jane Cecil, General Manager for the South Downs, explains how the cracks along the cliffs at Birling Gap were formed.


Birling Gap“The large cracks along the cliffs at Birling Gap are something that happens naturally from time to time. However, as a result of the recent storms coupled with very high tides, we have lost a lot of shingle from the beach which normally protects the base of the cliffs. We have also had a lot of rain over the last few months so the chalk – which the cliffs are made of – is saturated and heavy.

“You used to be able to look down at the beach and it was a mix of grey and white, but now it is almost completely white. This telling change reflects the loss of shingle, which has left the base of the cliffs very exposed and the soft chalk open to erosion.

“A second factor that has left the cliffs even more vulnerable is the high level of rainfall we have experienced. The porous chalk absorbs huge amounts of water leaving them incredibly heavy. The added weight causes the large cracks, which can separate and fall away from the cliff.

“The cracks have been there for some time, but over the last few days they seem to have grown. Unfortunately it is impossible to predict when the slabs of chalk will fall away, so we have taken the precautionary measure of taping this section of the cliff off.

“The beach has been closed since New Year but the bottom of the steps, which have been taken away for repair, should be back in place by the end of March.”

How the winter storms affected National Trust places

Outdoor Nation Blog Update

The recent extreme weather has caused devastation across the country. Many National Trust places have been affected by the winter storms – including coastline, woodland, houses and gardens. To keep you up to date on how the places in our care have coped and our thoughts on adapting to the realities of extreme weather, we’ll be using the Outdoor Nation blog to tell our story.

As well as posts from people across the Trust, we’ll also be adding voices from outside the organisation to reflect on what these more extreme weather events mean for the coast and countryside we look after.

We look forward to hearing your thoughts over the next few weeks and welcome your comments and discussion.

Coast in the news

National Trust’s Claire Graves looks back at how our coastline has coped with the extreme weather of the last few months.

What a time to become the National Trust’s Coast 2015 project manager… it’s week three in my new role, and what a rollercoaster three weeks it has been.

Technically, my job is to bring a spotlight onto everything we do on the Coast in 2015, especially celebrating the 50th anniversary of our incredibly successful Neptune fundraising campaign. However, recent events have focussed my attention on the immediate impacts on our places, working with our property colleagues and press office.

Flooding has been, quite rightly, top of the news agenda over the last few weeks, with people’s lives and livelihoods in upheaval. And our hearts go out to them as they face incredibly testing times.

Meanwhile, the high tides and storm surges have been having a huge effect on National Trust coastal places, causing years-worth of erosion in very quick time – over-night in some cases.

Birling Gap

Our Director of Land, Landscape and Nature, Peter Nixon, summed up our position in his article published on the Guardian website today:

“A succession of storms, some very high tides and incessant downpours this winter have brought into stark relief Britain’s exposure to the weather. Adapting to these conditions and the increasing frequency of extreme weather, with more confidence of a link with climate change, is a big challenge for the National Trust and for the nation.

“Many of the coastal places that we care for have seen dramatic changes this winter in a very short space of time. At Birling Gap in Sussex there has been seven years’ worth of cliff erosion in two months and Formby on the Sefton coast in the north-west lost eight metres of sand dune in just one afternoon. Access to Rhossili beach on the Gower peninsula in south Wales has become virtually impossible, with the bottom 50 metres of the footpath washed away by the storms.”

Check out the full article here:

Lots of other media outlets followed our story too. And you can check out some of the impacts our places have suffered on our website:

Our teams will be undertaking a full assessment of the impacts over the coming weeks, working out what we need to do now to make places safe and accessible, but also for the long-term.

So, some challenging – and exciting – times ahead for the National Trust.

Claire Graves


Stonehenge transformed

The long-awaited Stonehenge exhibition and visitor centre will open on 18 December.

For the first time, visitors will have a proper introduction to one of the world’s most important prehistoric monuments – set within the landscape looked after by the National Trust.

It is the first phase of English Heritage’s £27million project to transform the visitor experience of the iconic site, made possible by a £10m grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) and substantial gifts from the Garfield Weston Foundation, The Linbury Trust and the Wolfson Foundation.

Visitors will be able to see original objects used in its construction and those connected with Neolithic and Bronze Age men and women, their lives, their rituals and daily struggles.

The reconstructed face of a 5,500 year-old man buried in a long barrow 1.5 miles from Stonehenge – the most advanced reconstruction of a Neolithic man’s face to date – is a highlight.

A special exhibition will display important objects, never seen together before, that tell the story of the changing understanding of Stonehenge over centuries.

These include two rare 14th-century manuscripts which are among the earliest known drawings of the monument, Roman coins and jewellery, and early surveying equipment.

A 360-degree virtual experience will let visitors ‘stand in the stones’ before they enter the gallery.

This three-minute film, based on state-of-the-art laser scan images of the stone circle, will transport the viewer back in time through the millennia and enable them to experience the summer and winter solstices.  

Dr Simon Thurley, Chief Executive, English Heritage, said: “At last, visitors to Stonehenge will be able to get a sense of the people who built this monument, of their lives, their deaths and their ceremonies.

“Visitors will, for the first time, learn the astonishing history of the stones and will see objects, many never seen before, that will bring the stones to life.

“Instead of just a stopover or a quick photo opportunity, we want our visitors to step back in time and into the shoes of those who created and used this extraordinary place, to marvel at original everyday objects they used, to walk the surrounding landscape as they did, and to sit in the dwellings that they would have built.

“It makes the real encounter with the stones themselves so much more exciting.”

Culture Secretary Maria Miller said: “Stonehenge is one of the UK’s most iconic sites, undeniably worthy of its UNESCO World Heritage status attracting one million tourists every year from the UK and all over the world.

“So it’s only right that, after decades of indecision, we can now offer them the visitor experience and exhibition centre they deserve.

“A huge amount of work has gone into getting this right and making sure people can see the stones and their story in a whole new light.”

At the stone circle, there will be opportunities to walk and explore the surroundings of the monument including the Avenue, Stonehenge’s ancient processional approach, guided by new interpretation panels specially developed with the National Trust.

The Avenue has been reconnected to the stone circle after being severed by the A344 road for centuries. The whole area is now free of traffic, and newly sown grass is establishing on the former route of the road.

Dame Helen Ghosh, Director-General of the National Trust, said: “As the people who care for much of the surrounding land, we have supported English Heritage in bringing the Stonehenge landscape together and developing visitors’ understanding of the World Heritage Site as a whole.

“The removal of the A344 reconnects the monument with the landscape, giving visitors an opportunity to once again appreciate the ancient processional approach up to the stones.

“The new centre, with its fresh interpretation and displays, will help visitors understand the stones and the Neolithic world of ancient Britain from a different perspective.”
For further press information please contact English Heritage Press Office on +44 207 973 3250,

Wild things on the web

The film poster for Project Wild Thing, out in cinemas across the UK from Friday

The film poster for Project Wild Thing, out in cinemas across the UK from Friday

Hello, goodbye

The time and season has come for us to migrate – metaphorically and literally.

Having grown outdoor nation over the past few years we’ve been really pleased to feature content from the amazing array of people who are campaigning, thinking and doing something about children’s opportunities to play outdoors and to be able enjoy everything that nature has to offer.

We’ve done so well and reached a new exciting point where we have achieved a critical mass of organisations and individuals who want to continue to work together under the spectacular umbrella of the Wild Network, all galvanised around the release of Project Wild Thing.

Project Wild Thing hits the cinema screens in a few days time (from October 25th). It’s a great life changing and world changing film and we would love for you to go and see it, shout about and tell everyone. Find a screening and book tickets via

To mark the release of the film and launch of the Wild Network, we’ve therefore hopped across to a new and more spacious burrow and taken all the great stories we’ve featured here over to under the ‘news’ banner. is bigger and even better. We want you to see it as your wonderful new and more roomy abode in which we all get to share more and do more to connect children with nature, and give them the opportunities they need and want to play outdoors.

When we started we had an inkling that a new movement was ready to be born in the UK. We have now reached the moment when that movement is not just only hatched, but ready to fly.

So please join us and our new friends over at We promise that this is going to be the most amazing force for a wilder childhood that you have ever seen! So get involved, and join our happy migration…

It’s been and will remain wild.

Alex Hunt, National Trust

How our love of cars impacts on children’s freedom and what we can do about it

Alice Ferguson, Director of Playing Out, writes about the impact our love of cars has on our children.

I had thought about writing an article linking the recent ‘news’ that children in the UK are stuck indoors too much with the research published earlier this year demonstrating children’s loss of ‘independent mobility’ (a jargonny but very accurate term for their freedom to get about their neighbourhood under their own steam), mainly because of the traffic dominating our streets. It seems fairly evident to me that there a link between these two things, but I realised I am probably not qualified to draw any definite conclusions so decided to write about my own experience of parenting in the city and the effect that traffic has on my own and my children’s ‘choices’.

Playing Out - North St-22

Photo Credit Kamina Walton/Playing Out.

Whenever child obesity is in the news the finger is pointed at crisps and fizzy drinks, and children’s ‘preference’ for watching tv over being outside and active. Whilst children themselves are demonised as lazy and screen-addicted, most of the blame seems to be placed on parents, which I take issue with. For whilst there are some things we can do to prevent our kids from getting fat and unhealthy – if we have the time and means, we can take them to the park or to sports’ clubs for example – I would argue that as a society we have made it extremely difficult for children to be outdoors and active on a daily basis and this is the core of the problem.

From as soon as my eldest was walking I keenly felt the impact of traffic on her life. It was impossible to leave the house without ensuring I had some means of containing or restraining her. When walking to the shops or nursery, the idea of letting her ‘free range’ even a few metres from me felt impossible with nothing but a permeable wall of parked cars between her and almost certain death under the wheels of one of their fast-moving brethren. I remember thinking that if any other lethal hazard existed in such close proximity to our daily lives (for some reason I imagined an archer firing a constant stream of arrows along the road) we probably just wouldn’t go outside.

Playing Out - North St-5

Photo Credit Kamina Walton/Playing Out.

As my kids got older and gained more ‘road sense’ I gradually gave them more free rein but any parent knows it is quite simply stressful navigating busy roads with one or more small children who, however well-trained, are just not programmed to walk in straight lines at a consistent speed and stop dead at every junction or hidden driveway. I would bet that most of us have at some point yelled at our offspring for not stopping or listening or ‘messing around’ (i.e. playing) near the road. I certainly have – many times, even though I know it is the cars, and not them, who are the cause of the danger. Every time I do it I feel terrible – then I feel angry.

It is normal and healthy for young children to be carefree, thoughtless and a little bit wild – what is far more of a problem is that many adult drivers are equally unpredictable. I have experienced cars mounting the pavement right in front of where my kids are walking, cutting in front of them without indicating as they are about to cross a side-road or a turning into a car-park, failing to stop at zebra crossings and red traffic lights where my children are waiting to cross and honking at us as we cycle slowly and considerately along a quiet residential street. As well as this, the socially accepted norm of driving at 30mph (or slightly faster) in residential areas makes crossing most roads a hazard even for a fully road-trained adult like myself, let alone for a child.

Playing Out - North St-17

Photo Credit Kamina Walton/Playing Out.

All this means it is not easy to let our 8 or 9-year olds independently walk to school, to the park, or even call on friends across the street as we did at their age. For me, this is absolutely the main reason they are stuck in front of the telly instead of being outdoors and active. Media-hyped ‘stranger danger’ may be a factor but I think this is overblown and it side-steps the issue none of us really wants to face – we all drive too much, too fast and without enough consideration for other ‘road users’ (i.e. people).

Whilst I strongly believe that government and councils need to take a lead on making our streets more liveable, I have also realised that all of us can do something to turn things around and give children back the freedom they want and need. For starters, we can all decide NOT to drive above 20mph in residential areas, even where the speed limit is higher, as this is a far more reasonable way to behave in streets where people live and allows children time to navigate crossing the road safely. We can stop to allow pedestrians to cross at junctions. We can drive as if a child might run out in front of us at any time. We can use our cars less. Someone tweeted me recently saying something like ‘parents love their cars until it is their child who is run over’ and unfortunately they are right. There is no point bewailing the loss of our children’s freedom whilst at the same time contributing to the problem as soon as we get behind the wheel. Those of us who want to reclaim our children’s right to roam and play out need to lead by example, think twice before jumping in the car and remember that our streets are for sharing.

Alice is Director of Playing Out, a not-for-profit grassroots organisation which aims to reactivate a culture of street play across the UK. Follow her on Twitter: @aliceplayingout


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